Fetch Data

In this article, you’ll learn how to perform queries to the Prismic API to retrieve content in your Next.js application.

Before you proceed

First, you’ll need a project with Next.js and Prismic. If you don’t have one yet, start with the setup step.

Example

Here's a basic example of a homepage document fetched from the Prismic API with Next.js's getStaticProps():

pages/index.js
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import { SliceZone } from '@prismicio/react'

import { createClient } from '../prismicio'
import { components } from '../slices'

const Page = ({ page, navigation, settings }) => {
  return <SliceZone slices={page.data.slices} components={components} />
}

export default Page

export async function getStaticProps({ previewData }) {
  const client = createClient({ previewData })

  const page = await client.getSingle('homepage')

  return {
    props: {
      page,
    },
  }
}

Here is an example for a dynamic page, which includes getStaticPaths():

pages/[uid].js
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import { SliceZone } from '@prismicio/react'
import * as prismicH from '@prismicio/helpers'

import { createClient } from '../prismicio'
import { components } from '../slices'

const Page = ({ page, navigation, settings }) => {
  return <SliceZone slices={page.data.slices} components={components} />
}

export default Page

export async function getStaticProps({ params, previewData }) {
  const client = createClient({ previewData })

  const page = await client.getByUID('page', params.uid)

  return {
    props: {
      page,
    },
  }
}

export async function getStaticPaths() {
  const client = createClient()

  const pages = await client.getAllByType('page')

  return {
    paths: pages.map((page) => prismicH.asLink(page)),
    fallback: false,
  }
}

Types of data fetching

Data fetching in Next.js can be done in different ways depending on your application’s needs:

  • Static-site generation, also known as SSG, which we recommend in this guide
  • Server-side rendering, also known as SSR
  • Client-side rendering, also known as CSR

Next, we’ll go over each method to highlight the differences.

In all three methods, the API call to Prismic is accomplished in mostly the same way. Nonetheless, we recommend static-site generation.

Static-site generation (SSG)

Static-site generation pre-renders your application’s pages whenever there’s any change to the content of your website, which produces very fast initial page loads.

Data is fetched on the server once at build time using Next.js’ getStaticProps() API. Data returned from a page’s getStaticProps() function will be passed to the page’s component as props.

This function will only run when your app is built during deploys and after content updates.

This data fetching method is recommended for Prismic sites, because your website only changes when you publish changes to your documents in Prismic. Your app will typically be set up to rebuild each time you publish content to Prismic. See Deploy your App to learn how to set this up.

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import { createClient } from '../prismicio'

export async function getStaticProps({ previewData }) {
  const client = createClient({ previewData })

  const page = await client.getByUID('page', 'home')

  return {
    props: { page }, // Will be passed to the page component as props
  }
}

Server-side rendering (SSR)

Server-side rendering renders your application’s pages each time a visitor requests the page.

Data is fetched on the server using Next.js’ getServerSideProps() API. Data returned from a page’s getServerSideProps() function will be passed as props to the page’s component.

This function will run on every page request.

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import { createClient } from '../prismicio'

export async function getServerSideProps({ previewData }) {
  const client = createClient({ previewData })

  const page = await client.getByUID('page', 'home')

  return {
    props: { page }, // Will be passed to the page component as props
  }
}

All examples on this page are written for static-site generation with getStaticProps(). They can be adapted to server-side rendering by changing getStaticProps() to getServerSideProps().

Client-side rendering (CSR)

Client-side rendering performs all of its querying and rendering in the client (the browser). The server is not involved when using this method.

Data is fetched in the client using @prismicio/react's data fetching hooks. These hooks will run directly in the page or component where the data is used.

These hooks will run on every page request.

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export default function HomePage() {
  const [page] = usePrismicDocumentByUID('page', 'home')

  // `page` can be used in the component
}

The examples on this page are written for static-site generation

All of the examples on this page are written for static-site generation. They can be adapted to server-side rendering by changing getStaticProps() to getServerSideProps().

The examples on this page do not cover client-side rendering. You can learn how to use client-side rendering with @prismicio/react in the React documentation.

Perform a query

Queries are performed using a client created by the createClient() function exported from prismicio.js.

Here’s a complete example, querying a document of type page by its UID:

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// pages/[uid].js

import { createClient } from '../prismicio'

export default function Homepage({ page }) {
  return <h1>{page.uid}</h1>
}

export async function getStaticProps({ params, previewData }) {
  const client = createClient({ previewData })

  const page = await client.getByUID('page', params.uid)

  return {
    props: { page },
  }
}

createClient() is provided the previewData object from getStaticProps(). This enables Prismic’s preview support. See Preview Drafts to learn more about setting up previews.

Query helpers

Here are the most commonly-used query helper methods:

getByUID()

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getByUID(type, uid)
getByUID(type, uid, params)

Queries a document from the Prismic repository with a UID and Custom Type. type refers to the API ID of the Custom Type.

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const document = await client.getByUID('post', 'my-first-post')

getSingle()

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getSingle(type)
getSingle(type, params)

Queries a singleton document from the Prismic repository for a specific Custom Type. type refers to the API ID of the Custom Type.

For example, here we are querying for the only document of the Custom Type homepage.

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const document = await client.getSingle('homepage')

getAllByType()

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getAllByType(type)
getAllByType(type, params)

Queries all documents from the Prismic repository for a specific Custom Type. type refers to the API ID of the Custom Type. This method may perform multiple network requests. It returns an array containing all matching documents from the repository.

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const documents = await client.getAllByType('article')

Further Learning

There are many more methods for querying the API. All of these queries can accept params options to filter, sort, paginate and translate your query response. See them all in the @prismicio/client Technical Reference.

Use cases

Here are a few common use cases.

Fetch linked data

To pull in content from another document, you must fetch that content in your API query using the graphQuery or fetchLinks option.

With fetchLinks, reference the API ID of the Custom Type in your Content Relationship field, followed by the API ID of the specific field you want to retrieve. For example. If you have a Custom Type called "blog" that includes a Content Relationship field called example_content_relationship linked to a Custom Type called "author", you want to retrieve a field with an API ID of author_name.

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export const getStaticProps = async ({ previewData }) => {
  const client = createClient({ previewData })

  const document = await client.getByUID('blog', 'my-blog-post', {
    fetchLinks: 'author.author_name',
  })

  return {
    props: { document },
  }
}

Once you have adjusted your API query, the linked content will appear in a data object nested in the Content Relationship field:

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"example_content_relationship": {
  "id": "X9C65hEAAEFIAuLo",
  "type": "blog",
  "tags": [],
  "slug": "another-page-title",
  "lang": "en-us",
  "uid": "my-blog",
  "data": {
    "author_name": "Jane Doe"
  },
  "link_type": "Document",
  "isBroken": false
}

Query a nav menu or config document

In Prismic, you can create a singleton Custom Type to store site components, like a header, footer, nav menu, or SEO configuration.

To query a singleton, use the getSingle() method with the API ID of the singleton Custom Type.

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import { createClient } from '../prismicio'

export async function getStaticProps({ previewData }) {
  const client = createClient({ previewData })

  const menu = await client.getSingle('menu')

  return {
    props: { menu },
  }
}

Query one instance of a repeatable document

On repeatable documents, we recommend adding a UID field — a unique identifier. Prismic formats each document's UID so it is URL-friendly and unique to its Custom Type.

To query a specific document of a given Custom Type, like a blog post, you can use the getByUID() method. To use getByUID(), pass the UID and the API ID of the Custom Type.

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import { createClient } from '../prismicio'

export async function getStaticProps({ previewData }) {
  const client = createClient({ previewData })

  const page = await client.getByUID('page', 'hello-world')

  return {
    props: { page },
  }
}

You will likely use getByUID() with a page's URL path to generate a page based on the URL. For instance, at /hello-world, you would want to display the document with the UID hello-world. Rather than hard-coding every page by its UID, in Next.js you can use dynamic URL parameters by putting the parameter's name in square brackets: pages/[uid].js. Then you can access the uid parameter and perform a query with it:

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// pages/[uid].js

import { createClient } from '../prismicio'

export async function getStaticProps({ params, previewData }) {
  const client = createClient({ previewData })

  const page = await client.getByUID('page', params.uid)

  return {
    props: { page },
  }
}

This will return a document dynamically, based on the URL, so you can template a repeatable document.

Query all documents

There are three ways to get all documents.

  • You can query all documents of a certain type with getAllByType() (recommended).
  • You can query a paginated list of all documents of a certain type with getByType(). This will return a paginated response, including up to 100 documents per page.
  • To query an unpaginated list of all documents regardless of type, use dangerouslyGetAll(). Since the payload can be large, this method can cause performance issues, and it is not recommended.
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import { createClient } from '../prismicio'

export async function getStaticProps({ previewData }) {
  const client = createClient({ previewData })

  const pages = await client.getAllByType('page')

  return {
    props: { pages },
  }
}

Query by language

Prismic allows you to publish your content in different languages. By default, the API will return content in your master language. To get content in a different language, add an options object with a lang option and a locale code. Here's an example of how to query the document of the type homepage in French (fr-fr).

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import { createClient } from '../prismicio'

export async function getStaticProps({ previewData }) {
  const client = createClient({ previewData })

  const homepage = await client.getSingle('homepage', { lang: 'fr-fr' })

  return {
    props: { homepage },
  }
}

You can render localized content dynamically by including the language in the URL path (e.g. /fr-fr/bonjour-le-monde), like so:

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// pages/[lang]/[uid].js

import { createClient } from '../prismicio'

export async function getStaticProps({ params, previewData }) {
  const client = createClient({ previewData })
  const { uid, lang } = params

  const page = await client.getByUID('page', uid, { lang })

  return {
    props: { page },
  }
}

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